The role of melatonin in the treatment and prevention of cancer has been widely studied and numerous experimental studies have demonstrated the antitumor effect of melatonin in many cancers, including colon, breast, stomach, prostate. of the ovaries, lungs and mouth. The antitumor activity of melatonin is mediated by integrated mechanisms, including induction of apoptosis, modulation of the immune system, altered cancer targeting mechanism, inhibition of angiogenesis, and antimetastatic activity.

Combining melatonin with conventional anticancer treatments has shown positive results by enhancing the therapeutic effects of these treatments. Clinically, melatonin has been active to increase the therapeutic effects of anticancer drugs, and several clinical studies have suggested that the effectiveness of chemotherapy may be enhanced when melatonin was incorporated. The therapeutic effect of melatonin is increased when combined with other anticancer agents.

Melatonin can be obtained from plants as phytomelatonin and , the highest level was found in seeds. The bioavailability and pharmacokinetic properties of exogenous melatonin are not fully understood, while high variability in bioavailability has been reported with values from 1 to 100%. These variable numbers are mainly due to absorption, metabolism and excretion.

Overall, its low toxicity, diverse mechanisms of action, and high efficacy support its use in cancer prevention and treatment.

SOURCE: Molecules 2021.