Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a member of the flavanol family, is the main catechin in green tea {50% -80% of catechins} has the highest antioxidant capacity among catechins, partly mediated by improved mitochondrial functions ROS generation prevention. EGCG attenuates mitochondrial dysfunction in experimental animals and reduces lipid peroxidation products. Similarly, mitochondrial respiratory chain activity is significantly improved by EGCG in the liver of mice fed a high-fat diet. EGCG has been shown to inhibit the aggregation of Aβ, one of the protein complexes that contribute to the pathological progression of the disease.

The mechanism is based on the ability of EGCG to activate α-secretase, a hydrolytic enzyme that helps reduce the rate at which Aβ peptide is produced in brain cells. EGCG also acts against AD by trapping ROS, in addition to inhibiting Mono / Amino / Oxidase {MAO}, which leads to reductions in the levels of highly toxic peroxide compounds EGCG reduces lipid accumulation in HepG cells by increasing AMPK levels thereby reducing intracellular lipid content.

The prophylactic effects of EGCG on the development of NAFLD are also attributed to its anti-fibrotic and anti-inflammatory properties as well as its role in improving insulin sensitivity. EGCG attenuates TGF-β1, the stimulated expression of M phosphorylation of SMAD2 {receptor stimulated by TGF-β1 and TIMP1 ας MMP2 & MMP9 inhibitor, associated with oncogenase and hepatic fibrosis}.

EGCG reduces hepatic protein levels of ICAM-1 and E-selectin,  cell adhesion molecules, reducing macrophage infiltration in the liver {in rats with steatosis} from a high cholesterol diet and improves insulin resistance.

SOURCE: Nutritional Epigenomics 2019